- to have a historical frame of reference frame of reference and to be duly capable of putting forward historical explanations;
- to be duly capable of interpreting contemporary developments in a historical-comparative perspective;
- to have a due command of the techniques required to collect, assess, process and integrate historical material (sources and literature) as part of a historical discourse in a duly scientific and self-reliant manner;
- to have the theoretical knowledge and appropriate reasoning skills to put forward original insightful hypotheses on the basis of historical empirical material and to duly test said hypotheses;
- to have the appropriate oral and written communication and reasoning skills to promote the active and critical participation during the learning process and to be duly capable of developing a personal view.
- to be duly capable of performing scientific historical research on a self-reliant basis: from formulating a query right up to recording one’s own research results in a correct and easily readable language style, linked with the ability to situate, interpret and place the results found into an international context;
- to be duly capable of documenting, analysing, explaining and putting into perspective social and scientific developments and participating in social and scientific debate;
- to be appropriately familiar with discipline-technical and topic-specific skills and understandings to initiate scientific research on a self-reliant and autonomous basis.